Tuesday, 19 June 2018

A research proposal is a concise and coherent summary of your proposed research. It sets out the central issues or questions that you intend to address. It outlines the general area of study within which your research falls, referring to the current state of knowledge and any recent debates on the topic. It also demonstrates the originality of your proposed research.

  • ·      The proposal is the most important document that you submit as part        of the application process.
  • ·       It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate that you have the aptitude        for graduate level research.(example, by demonstrating that you have        the ability to communicate complex ideas clearly, concisely and                  critically.)
  • ·    The proposal also helps us to match your research interest with an               appropriate supervisor.

Regardless of whether you are applying for the PhD programmes, your research proposal should normally include the following information:
This is just a tentative title for your intended research. You will be able to revise your title during the course of your research if you are accepted for admission.

Examples of the thesis titles of some of our current and recent research students can be seen on our Current Projects page
 The proposal should include a concise statement of your intended research of no more than 100 words. This may be a couple of sentences setting out the problem that you want to examine or the central question that you wish to address.

You should explain the broad background against which you will conduct your research. You should include a brief overview of the general area of study within which your proposed research falls, summarising the current state of knowledge and recent debates on the topic. This will allow you to demonstrate a familiarity with the relevant field as well as the ability to communicate clearly and concisely.

The proposal should set out the central aims and questions that will guide your research. Before writing your proposal, you should take time to reflect on the key questions that you are seeking to answer. Many research proposals are too broad, so reflecting on your key research questions is a good way to make sure that your project is sufficiently narrow and feasible (i.e. one that is likely to be completed with the normal period for a PhD degree).
 You might find it helpful to prioritize one or two main questions, from which you can then derive a number of secondary research questions. The proposal should also explain your intended approach to answering the questions: will your approach be empirical, doctrinal or theoretical etc?

The proposal should outline your research methods, explaining how you are going to conduct your research. Your methods may include visiting particular libraries or archives, field work or interviews.
Most research is library-based. If your proposed research is library-based, you should explain where your key resources (e.g. law reports, journal articles) are located (in the Law School’s library, West law etc). If you plan to conduct field work or collect empirical data, you should provide details about this (e.g. if you plan interviews, who will you interview? How many interviews will you conduct? Will there be problems of access?). This section should also explain how you are going to analyse your research findings.

The proposal should demonstrate the originality of your intended research. You should therefore explain why your research is important (for example, by explaining how your research builds on and adds to the current state of knowledge in the field or by setting out reasons why it is timely to research your proposed topic).

·       The proposal should include a short bibliography identifying the most relevant works for your topic.

·       The proposal should usually be around 2,500 words. It is important to bear in mind that specific funding bodies might have different word limits.


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Saturday, 19 August 2017


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It can represent your business with an eye-catching fully customized website design that reflects your values. It can implement an Internet strategy that will increase your sales, decrease your advertising costs and give you a head start over your competitors. It can convey a strong marketing message with sophisticated flash designs that will attract attention and woo your clients. Your website design is a reflection of your business as well as your corporate image.
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Ø We have a Team of  Experts with Rich Technology experience, versatile skill and higher qualifications in their verticals to provide you the best possible of the art solutions.
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Wednesday, 16 August 2017


Writing a research paper poses challenges in gatheringliterature and providing evidence for making your paper stronger. Drawing upon previously established ideas and values and adding pertinent information in your paper are necessary steps, but these need to be done with caution without falling into the trap of plagiarism.

Plagiarism is the unethical practice of using words or ideas (either planned or accidental) of another author/researcher or your own previous works without proper acknowledgement. Considered as a serious academic and intellectual offense, plagiarism can result in highly negative consequences such as paper retractions and loss of author credibility and reputation. It is currently a grave problem in academic publishing and a major reason for retraction of research papers.


Verve Research Solutions provides 5 way to avoid plagiarism:

1. Paraphrase

2. Quoting

3. Identify what does and does not need to be cited

4. Manage your citations

5. Plagiarism Checkers


ü  Do not copy–paste the text verbatim from the reference paper. Instead, restate the idea in your own words.
ü  Understand the idea(s) of the reference source well in order to paraphrase correctly.


ü Use quotes to indicate that the text has been taken from another paper. The quotes should be exactly the way they appear in the paper you take them from.

3.Identify what does and does not need to be cited

ü  Cite Your Own Material—If you are using content from your previous paper, you must cite yourself. Using material you have published before without citation is called self-plagiarism.
ü  The scientific evidence you gathered after performing your tests should not be cited.
ü  Facts or common knowledge need not be cited. If unsure, include a reference.

4. Manage your citations

ü  Maintain records of the sources you refer to. Use citation software like EndNote or Reference Manager to manage the citations used for the paper
ü  Use multiple references for the background information/literature survey. For example, rather than referencing a review, the individual papers should be referred to and cited.

5. Plagiarism Checkers

ü You can use various plagiarism detection tools such as iThenticate or eTBLAST to check for any inadvertent plagiarism in your manuscript.


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Monday, 7 August 2017


Writing a literature review is often the most daunting part of writing an article, book, thesis, or dissertation. “The literature” seems (and often is) massive. I have found it helpful to be as systematic as possible when completing this gargantuan task.

Before you begin to search for articles or books, decide beforehand what areas you are going to research. Make sure that you only get articles and books in those areas, even if you come across fascinating books in other areas. A literature review I am currently working on, for example, explores barriers to higher education for undocumented students.
Conduct a comprehensive bibliographic search of books and articles in your area. Read the abstracts online and download and/or print those articles that pertain to your area of research. Find books in the library that are relevant and check them out. Set a specific time frame for how long you will search. It should not take more than two or three dedicated sessions.
Skim the contents of each book and article and look specifically for these five things:
1. Claims, conclusions, and findings about the constructs you are investigating
2. Definitions of terms
3. Calls for follow-up studies relevant to your project
4. Gaps you notice in the literature
5. Disagreement about the constructs you are investigating
When you find any of these five things, type the relevant excerpt directly into a Word document. Don’t summarize, as summarizing takes longer than simply typing the excerpt. Make sure to note the name of the author and the page number following each excerpt. Do this for each article and book that you have in your stack of literature. When you are done, print out your excerpts.
Get out a pair of scissors and cut each excerpt out. Now, sort the pieces of paper into similar topics. Figure out what the main themes are. Place each excerpt into a themed pile. Make sure each note goes into a pile. If there are excerpts that you can’t figure out where they belong, separate those and go over them again at the end to see if you need new categories. When you finish, place each stack of notes into an envelope labeled with the name of the theme.
Type, in large font, the name of each of your coded themes. Print this out, and cut the titles into individual slips of paper. Take the slips of paper to a table or large work space and figure out the best way to organize them. Are there ideas that go together or that are in dialogue with each other? Are there ideas that contradict each other? Move around the slips of paper until you come up with a way of organizing the codes that makes sense. Write the conceptual schema down before you forget or someone cleans up your slips of paper.
Choose any section of your conceptual schema to begin with. You can begin anywhere, because you already know the order. Find the envelope with the excerpts in them and lay them on the table in front of you. Figure out a mini-conceptual schema based on that theme by grouping together those excerpts that say the same thing. Use that mini-conceptual schema to write up your literature review based on the excerpts that you have in front of you. Don’t forget to include the citations as you write, so as not to lose track of who said what. Repeat this for each section of your literature review.
Once you complete these 6 steps, you will have a complete draft of your literature review. The great thing about this process is that it breaks down into manageable steps something that seems enormous: writing a literature review.


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Saturday, 5 August 2017


Introduction This document provides guidelines for preparing a research synopsis (and indirectly of the final report of your work that will be presented at the end of your research program). The research synopsis is the plan for your research project. It provides the rationale for the research, the research objectives, the proposed methods for data collection and recording formats and/or questionnaires and interview guides. The synopsis is based on the information provided by the supervisor(s) and by secondary sources of information. In the final report you will present the results of your data collection and elaboration, with the discussion and the conclusion. The full synopsis should be maximum 3-4,000 words, excluding appendices.


Verve Research Solutions Provides below mentioned steps:

1. Title*

2. Abstract*

3. Introduction*

4. Problem analysis/literaturereview*

5. Objectives*

6. Hypotheses*

7. Limitations*

8. Methodology and methods*

9. Results

10. Discussion

11. Conclusion

12. References*

13. Appendix A Research matrix*

14. Appendix B Data collectioninstruments



This should be brief and self-explanatory. It should relate directly to the main objective of the proposed research. A more specific and descriptive sub-title can be added if necessary, for example to indicate the main methodology that will be applied. The title of the final report can be different from the working title of the synopsis.



The abstract should briefly state the problem, the main objective(s), the theories/conceptual framework used (if relevant), and the method(s). The abstract alone should give the reader a clear idea about the research in no more than 150 words.



Here you should introduce the main problem, set it into context and introduce the particular niche within the main subject area that you will work with. For example, the main subject area could be deforestation and the Introduction would then briefly argue why it is relevant to be concerned with deforestation – to whom it is a problem and why. The niche could be the role of small-scale farmers in deforestation processes in mountain areas. Justification for the niche should also be included in the Introduction.


Problem analysis/Literature review:

In this section you present details regarding the research problem. You should present documentation of the existence of the problem, how it is manifested, who it affects and involves, what roles and interests the involved actors have, the historical background to the problem (including what has lead to the actual situation), and the problem’s complexity (what it consists of and what it is a part of) (Dahl et al., 1999). The problem analysis is based on a critical review of scientific literature: the theories typically used to frame research on the subject area, knowledge available and research methods used with what degree of success.



These should be identified on the basis of the problem analysis. That means, after reading the problem analysis it should be immediately clear that the choice of objectives is relevant and justified. The objectives should focus on concepts and problems mentioned in the problem analysis Each research proposal should contain one overall objective describing the general contribution that the research project makes to the subject area as well as one or more specific objectives focusing on discrete tasks that will be achieved during the research. The overall objective may be something that the study will contribute towards but not solve/finish; the overall objective should not be a compilation of the specific objectives.



These are predictions of the outcomes from the study. It is useful at the outset to specify the hypotheses in terms of the assumed relations between variables so as to clarify the position and pre-understanding of the researcher. If statistical tests are to be conducted formulation of hypotheses is a crucial element of the research design. Hypotheses can be derived from theory, experience or knowledge concerning contextual factors. In purely quantitative, deductive research hypotheses are tested statistically, whereas in qualitative, inductive research hypotheses are not formulated. In the Joint Summer Module you are unlikely to conduct purely qualitative research (although qualitative elements may be included), and so hypotheses are relevant.



Although the specific or immediate objectives may be quite narrow, they could probably imply much more data collection and analysis than possible for a thesis. To demonstrate a good overview of the general subject area it should be specified what aspects will not be addressed and how this will limit conclusions. It is important to not (only) mention that due to time constraints a limited number of observations/measurements/interviews will be conducted. Rather, the aim here is on topical limitations. Methodological limitations can be put in the methods section.


Methodology and methods:

A research project follows an overall methodology to make conclusions in relation to the overall objective. Some types are experiments, surveys, models and case studies. Within a given research methodology several data collection methods can be relevant, and both quantitative and qualitative methods may be used in the same study. You should specify what research methodology is chosen to fulfil the research objectives (see Appendix A). A description of the methodology used does not mean a reproduction of standard textbook definitions, in stead, references should be used. 



This section presents the analysed data, preferably in tables and charts. It is a good idea to organise the results logically, for example by first presenting background information like demographics and then continue with in a sequence reflecting the specific objectives. All tables and figure must be numbered and referred to in the text. Table headings go above the table, figure headings go below the figure. Traditionally, you do not discuss the results in this section. That means, you do not explain why a specific number is an outlier, or why few people answered a specific question – you leave to the Discussion.



Here you discuss what the results mean in relation to the objectives. You also discuss the influence of the chosen methods on the results and what methodological problems may have been faced. Finally, you compare your own results with those of other studies to identify whether your study is in accordance or at odds with previous scientific studies. If the latter is the case this warrants special consideration.



Start by clearly stating the main finding of the research. Then go on to outline the implications of the findings. How important is your contribution to the understanding that is currently held on the subject area and niche? What future studies could be recommended (don’t overdo the last point).



When you cite literature there are standards to be followed for in-text citations and the format of the reference list. You should use the Harvard referencing system, meaning that in-text citations consist of author name(s) and publication year, for example: Swanson, 2005. Literature can be used passively, in which case the author name(s) and publication year are put in brackets: The moon is made from cheese (Silverbrandt, 1935). When the author name is used actively only the publication year is put in brackets: Silverbrandt (1935) argued that the moon is made from cheese. When an article is written by two authors the in-text citation is (Oldfield and Morse, 2009) or (Oldfield & Morse, 2007). The coma before publication year can be omitted – but then it should always be omitted. A very crucial point is to decide which of several possible formats to use and then to follow it consistently.



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Thursday, 3 August 2017


A thesis is a statement that should appear in the introduction of a research paper. The thesis statement should explain the topic of the research paper and objective of the research. The thesis statement should summarize your entire paper from beginning to end in a short statement. Writing of the thesis statement requires expertise in the relevant domain.
Our technical writing team writes appropriate thesis to fulfill the requirements of the research scholars, based on the technological advancement in various research fields. Verve Research Solutions, writers practice various techniques to stimulate their reasoning skills and comprehend the broader significance of a topic, to arrive at a final thesis statement.
  • Introduction: It describes the background and provides the rationale of the study, moving from general to specific. This is done by establishing a research area and establishing a gap in that area. Then, the writer sets out to occupy that gap. The purpose and significance of the study are stated and research questions are listed.
  • Literature Review: It aims to give a comprehensive view of current research and explain the grounds for study. It should help explain how your research adds to, contradicts, or augments this existing knowledge. A separate chapter may be devoted to the literature review or it can be placed at the beginning. Alternatively, the review of the literature may take place progressively throughout the thesis.
  • Methodology: It describes in detail the research / study and to answer the questions when, where and how. It includes the main components of design, population and sample, data collection and instrumentation and analysis. It must be explicit enough to allow the replication of research.
  • Results: It describes the findings in a simple way, along with figures and tables.
  • Conclusion: It critically assesses the study or research done and makes generalizations, implications and recommendations. It responds to the question/s in the Introduction, interprets the results, and points out their underlying meaning and overall significance. The limitations of the study are also explained here. At the end, there should be recommendations for future researchers who will be working in the same area.


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