Sunday, 23 April 2017



A synopsis should be constructed in a manner that facilitates the reviewer to understand the research project at a glance. It should be brief but precise. A synopsis can be structured in the following manner:
  • Title
  • Statement of the problem and hypothesis
  • Aims and objectives
  • Review of literature
  • Research methodology
  • References
  • Official requirements


    The title of the research project should be brief but informative; sensationalize of the title is best avoided. It should neither be too short nor too long. Any name of the institution, the number of cases to be studied should not be included. The hypothesis to be studied can be included.

    a. "Study of topic pregnancy"

    This was a title chosen for university registration. The title is too short. It does not state the problem or the hypothesis and is least informative. More meaningful title shall be, "Study of ectopic pregnancy in relation to morbidity, mortality, and intervention in a referral hospital". 

    b. "A novel sustained release matrix based on biodegradable poly (ester amides) and, impregnated with bacteriophages and an antibiotic shows promise in management of infected venous stasis ulcer and other poorly healing wounds", (Int. J Dermot vol 8 2002). The title is long and ill conceived. It gives a confusing picture about the study problem. Such long titles are best avoided. Certain amount of sensationalize is also present by using term 'novel'. More meaningful title shall be, "Response of venous stasis ulcers and other poorly healing wounds to a biodegradable matrix impregnated with bacteriologist and an antibiotic". The other details about the new method can be mentioned while stating the problem. 

    c. "Fine needle aspiration, as a diagnostic tool for papulonodular skin lesions". This is an acceptable, informative, and precise title. It states the hypothesis correctly. 

    Statement of the problem or hypothesis

    The problem being studied should be mentioned in precise and clear terms. Understanding the problem aids the researcher in constructing the research proposal. It also allows the person to formulate the hypothesis. The problem under study should be relevant to the present. A brief account of its utility at the local or national level has to be discussed. The present status of the problem and the necessity for taking up the study needs to be mentioned.

    Hypothesis is mentioned as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables. Hypothesis should not be a haphazard guess but should reflect the knowledge, imagination, and experience of the investigator. Hypothesis can be formulated by understanding the problem, reviewing the literature on it, and considering other factors. A researcher can state the problem and the hypothesis in about 200 words covering all the aspects described above.

    Aims and objectives

    All research projects should have objectives and aims and every effort should be made to achieve them. The objectives and aims should be only a few (2-3). They must pertain to the study problem. Usages of terms like "first study", "the only study", etc. should be avoided. 

    Review of literature

    Review of literature is a very important part of a research project. It achieves the following:

    1. Familiarizes the reader to the problem under study.
    2. It describes the work done by others either at local or international level on it or similar subject.
    3. It helps the researcher to understand the difficulties faced by others and the corrective steps taken or modifications made by them. The researcher can anticipate similar or additional problems during the study and review of literature helps him in anticipating them.
    4. Research methodology of the researcher can be structured and modified after reviewing the literature.
    5. The review assists in identifying various variables in the research project and conceptualizes their relationship.
    6. Review of literature in a synopsis helps the reviewer in assessing the knowledge of the researcher. The reviewer can assess the work put in by the researcher and also assists in assessing the feasibility of the study.

    The review of literature in a synopsis need not be exhaustive. The relevant information should be covered in about 300 words quoting 8-10 authentic, easily retrievable references. Literature can be reviewed by using various scientific-information-gathering methods. These are journals, national or international; bulletins of organizations like WHO, CDC books; computer-assisted searches like Medline and Medlar; and personal communications with other researchers. Internet provides a vast avenue for information gathering. Care must be taken to retrieve only relevant information. In this era of information technology review of literature is literally "just a click away".

    Research methodology

    In a synopsis the research methodology adopted should be mentioned in about 150-200 words. The research methodology forms the core of the research project. The methodology should cover the following aspects:

    1. Study design
    2. Study settings
    3. Sampling
    4. Variables
    5. Controls
    6. Study methods - examinations or investigations
    7. Data collection
    8. Data analysis
    9. Ethical clearance

    All references quoted in review of literature and anywhere else in the synopsis should be listed here. There are two styles for writing references, Vancouver style and Harvard style. Vancouver style is easy to follow as it depends on the numbers as quoted in text. 

    Official requirements 

    A synopsis is incomplete if it does not contain the following information:

    1. Name of the researcher and designation
    2. Name and designation of the guide
    3. Name and designation of head of department\institution
    4. Name of the institution
    5. Signatures of all with official seal

    Synopsis writing is an important step in a research project. A good synopsis will give maximum information in minimum words. A well-conceived synopsis will go a long way in convincing the reviewer about the ability of the researcher to conduct the project. In cases of need for financial assistance, the request will be considered favorably. Thus, all research workers should make efforts to prepare a well-structured synopsis.

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    Thursday, 20 April 2017



    A research proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of the proposed program. It is like an outline of the entire research process that gives a reader a summary of the information discussed in the research. A typical research proposal includes an extensive, but focused literature review and preliminary results.
    Our research team offers a high quality research proposal having a detailed description of the proposed approach and summary of the project information, for the entire research program.
    Research proposal describing research background, significance, methods, references, hypotheses or the expected results, focused literature review and also preliminary results, is written for receiving funds from the research sponsors such as governmental, nonprofit or business research foundations.

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    Selection Of Topic:

    The research topic is chosen carefully, while considering the time required to write the paper, the total length of the paper, target client and the limits of the resources. Writing the paper will be much easier based on the selection of the interesting topic. In fact, it will be easier to narrow the topic later, if the familiar research topic is chosen.

    Narrow The Topic:

    Read the background articles about the topics in encyclopedias and other general references, to narrow the topic.

    State The Objective:

    Before starting the research, a thesis statement describing the viewpoint expressed in the paper is composed. Since the purpose of the research lies in the rest of the paper, the thesis statement provides an idea to help to choose the resource materials.

    Formation Of  Bibliography:

    A preliminary bibliography is a list of potential sources of information. Read the articles of the well-established authors and try to determine the point of view presented in the articles, based on the technical sense.

    Preparation Of Outline:

    While doing the research, there will be a need to review the plan if there is a lack of information about the topic and conflicting information. So the working outline is important in this situation. Nevertheless, it provides a good starting point, before starting to take the notes. Start by listing the research topics that are to be discussed in the paper and divide the items on the list into major topics and subtopics.

    Start Taking The Notes:

    After gathering the materials, a working outline can be prepared and then the notes can be taken. Somehow, each note should relate to one of the topics on the working outline. Be sure to write notes with own words and use the direct quotes only, when the information is expressed in a particularly unusual way.

    Outline The Paper:

    The final outline is more similar to the working outline, but is more complex, with each topic being further divided into several subtopics. The final outline also should reflect the structural format chosen for the paper. This will depend on the topic of the paper and thesis statement.

    Writing The Rough Draft :

    After completing the final outline, the rough draft can be written. It is also important to revise the rough draft. At the same time, write the footnote as it should appear in the paper at the bottom of the page or in list form on a separate sheet of paper. The conclusion should summarize the findings and restate the thesis.

    Edit The Paper:

    After finishing the rough draft, read it thoroughly and revise it. Edit the rough draft.

    Write The Final Draft:

    After completing the editing of the rough draft, a final draft including citations and bibliography should be prepared. Some research paper will require a title page, depending on the formatting style. The title page should include the title of the paper, name of the author, name of the course and name of the instructor. Footnotes may be arranged in numerical order at the bottom of the page on which they appear or a separate page (labeled Endnotes) placed at the end of the paper just before the bibliography.

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