Wednesday, 31 May 2017

HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM?

So you have found information that is perfect for your research paper. Read it and put it into your own words. Make sure that you do not copy verbatim more than two words in a row from the text you have found. If you do use more than two words together, you will have to use quotation marks. We will get into quoting properly soon.


Cite:

Citing is one of the effective ways to avoid plagiarism. Follow the document formatting guidelines (i.e. APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) used by your educational institution or the institution that issued the research request. This usually entails the addition of the author(s) and the date of the publication or similar information. Citing is really that simple. Not citing properly can constitute plagiarism


Quoting:

When quoting a source, use the quote exactly the way it appears. No one wants to be misquoted. Most institutions of higher learning frown on “block quotes” or quotes of 40 words or more. A scholar should be able to effectively paraphrase most material. This process takes time, but the effort pays off! Quoting must be done correctly to avoid plagiarism allegations


Citing Quotes:

Citing a quote can be different than citing paraphrased material. This practice usually involves the addition of a page number, or a paragraph number in the case of web content.


Citing Your Own Material:

If some of the material you are using for your research paper was used by you in your current class, a previous one, or anywhere else you must cite yourself. Treat the text the same as you would if someone else wrote it. It may sound odd, but using material you have used before is called self-plagiarism, and it is not acceptable.


Referencing:

One of the most important ways to avoid plagiarism is including a reference page or page of works cited at the end of your research paper. Again, this page must meet the document formatting guidelines used by your educational institution. This information is very specific and includes the author(s), date of publication, title, and source. Follow the directions for this page carefully. You will want to get the references right


Be sure to edit your research paper carefully and check for plagiarism before turning it in to the class. The steps above are essential for research paper writing. Using plagiarism checker services such as Write Check is a great way to assess your paraphrasing and other anti-plagiarism skills. Most educators and educational institutions are using some kind of plagiarism checker software to check students’ papers. Do not take the chance of not checking your research paper. Plagiarism could mean the loss of your academic degree or career.


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Monday, 22 May 2017

HOW TO WRITE A DISSERTATION?

I haven’t met many Ph.D. students who don’t like to write. Some may like writing more than others, but most enjoy writing—or, at least, the satisfaction of having written. Wherever you find yourself on the love-for-writing spectrum, a dissertation awaits completion, and you must finish. Here are a few tips to help you.
The dissertation writing process can quickly become paralyzing because of its size and importance. It is a project that will be reviewed rigorously by your advisor and your committee, and your graduation depends on your successful completion and defense. Facing these realities can be daunting and tempt you to wait until you can determine that you’ve researched or thought enough about the topic. Yet, the longer you delay writing, the more difficult it will be to actually start the process. The answer to your paralysis is to start writing. Are you unsure of your argument or not fully convinced you have done the requisite research? You may be right: your argument may not be airtight, and you may need to do more reading; but you will be able to determine to what degree these problems need attention when you start writing. Productivity begets productivity, and you will be amazed at how arguments take shape and the direction of your research is forged as you write.
So, don’t stop writing. Of course, you need to continue to read and study and take notes—I will talk about this more in a moment—but it is best if you keep the gears from grinding to a halt. Keep your mind working and your project moving. Your assignment is not to turn in a hundred pages of notes to your supervisor—you must produce a dissertation with complete sentences and paragraphs and chapters.  Keep writing.
 Writing sooner and writing continually can only happen if you aren’t consumed with perfection. Some of us are discouraged from writing because we think our first draft needs to be our final draft. But this is exactly the problem. Get your thoughts on paper and plan to go back and fix awkward sentences, poor word choices, and illogical or unsubstantiated arguments in your subsequent drafts.  Knowing that rewriting is part of the writing process will free you to write persistently, make progress, and look forward to fixing things later.
 This probably could fit in the number one slot, but I wanted to emphasize the importance writing right away. Besides, you might find that you modify your thesis and methodology slightly as you write and make progress in developing your overall argument. Nevertheless, the adage is true: form a solid thesis and methodology statement and your dissertation will “write itself.” Plan to spend some time writing and rewriting and rewriting (again) your thesis and methodology statements so that you will know where you are going and where you need to go.
Developing a clear thesis and methodology will allow you to move around in your dissertation when you get stuck. Granted, we should not make a habit of avoiding difficult tasks, but there are times when it will be a more effective use of time to move to sections that will write easy. As you continue to make progress in your project and get words on paper, you will also help mitigate the panic that so often looms over your project when you get stuck and your writing ceases.
Having encouraged you to move to another section when you get stuck, it is also important to add a balancing comment to encourage you to fight through the tough spots in your project. I don’t mean that you should force writing when it is clear that you may need to make some structural changes or do a little more research on a given topic. But if you find yourself dreading a particular portion of your dissertation because it will require some mind-numbing, head-on-your-desk, prayer-producing rigor, then my advice is to face these tough sections head on and sit in your chair until you make some progress. You will be amazed at how momentum will grow out of your dogged persistence to hammer out these difficult portions of your project.
A dissertation needs to be of publishable quality and it will need to past the muster of your supervisor and committee. But it is also a graduation requirement. Do the research. Make a contribution. Finish the project. And plan to write your five-volume theology when you have 30-40 more years of study, reflection, and teaching under your belt.
 Taking careful notes is essential for two reasons. First, keeping a meticulous record of the knowledge you glean from your research will save you time: there will be no need to later revisit your resources and chase bibliographic information, and you will find yourself less prone to the dreaded, “Where did I read that?” Second, and most importantly, you will avoid plagiarism.  If you fail to take good notes and are not careful to accurately copy direct quotes and make proper citations, you will be liable to reproducing material in your dissertation that is not original with you. Pleading that your plagiarism was inadvertent will not help your cause. It is your responsibility to take careful notes and attribute all credit to whom it is due through proper citation.
 Write sooner, write continually, and write in order to rewrite. But you need to know when you are churning an empty barrel. Reading and research should be a stimulus to write and you need to know when that stimulus is needed. Be willing to stop writing for a short period so that you can refresh your mind with new ideas and research.
 While it is important to keep writing and make the most of the time that you have, it is best for writing projects specifically to set aside large portions of time with which to write. Writing requires momentum, and momentum gathers over time. Personally, I have found that I need at least an hour to get things rolling, and that three to four hours is ideal.

Because our minds and bodies are meant to function in harmony, you will probably find that your productivity suffers to the degree that you are not giving attention to your exercise, sleep, and eating habits.  Like it or not, our ability to maintain long periods of sustained concentration, think carefully over our subject matter, and find motivation to complete tasks is dependent in a significant sense upon how we are caring for our bodies.  When we neglect exercise, fail to get adequate sleep, or constantly indulge in an unhealthy diet, we will find it increasingly difficult to muster the energy and clarity with which to complete our dissertation.
 Completing a dissertation, in large measure, is not so much a feat of the intellect as it is the result of discipline. If you are able to set aside large chunks of time with which to research and write, make sure that you are not using that time for other tasks. This means that you must strive against multi-tasking. In truth, studies have shown that multi-tasking is a cognitive impossibility.  Our brains can only concentrate on one thing at a time.  When we think we are multitasking we are actually “switch-tasking;” rather than doing several things at once, our brains are constantly toggling from one task to the other (listening to a song on the radio to reading a book, back to the song, etc.). You will be amazed at how much you can accomplish if you give an undistracted 60-90 minutes to something. Stay on task.
 This is a basic writing principle, but one that bears repeating here: write the body of a given chapter or section and then return to the introductions. It is usually easier to introduce something that you have already written for the simple fact that you now know what you are introducing. You might be tempted to write the introduction first and labor to capture your reader with a gripping illustration or perfect quote while refusing to enter into the body of your paper until your preliminary remarks are flawless. This is a sure recipe for frustration. Wait until you have completed a particular section or chapter’s content until you write introductions. This practice will save you time and loads of trouble.
 There’s nothing magic about a legal pad; my only aim here is to encourage you to push back from the keyboard occasionally and stimulate your mind by sketching your argument and writing your ideas by hand. I have found my way out of many dry spells by closing the laptop for a few minutes and writing on a piece of paper. I might bullet point a few key ideas, diagram my chapter outlines, or sketch the entire dissertation with boxes and arrows and notes scribbled over several pages.
 It has been said recently that walking promotes creativity. I agree. Whether you like to walk among the trees or besides the small coffee shops along quaint side streets, I recommend that you go on walks and think specifically about your dissertation. You might find that the change of scenery, the stimulus of a bustling community, or the refreshing quiet of a park trail is just the help you need.
 In order to make the most of your walks, you will need a place to “capture” your ideas. You may prefer to use the voice memo or notepad feature on your smartphone, or, if you’re like me, Whatever your preference, find a method that allows you to store your ideas as they come to you during your walks or as you fall to sleep at night. I wonder how many useful ideas many of us have lost because we failed to write them down? Don’t let this happen to you. Resolve to be a good steward of your thinking time and seize those thoughts.
 When you are writing your dissertation, you might be tempted to lock away your ideas and avoid discussing them with others. This is unwise. Talking with others about your ideas helps you to refine and stimulate your thinking; it also creates opportunities for you to learn of important resources and how your contribution will affect other branches of scholarship. Also, as people ask questions about your project, you will begin to see where your argument is unclear or unsubstantiated.
Writing a dissertation requires a massive amount of reading. You must become familiar with the arguments of several hundred resources—books, articles, reviews, and other dissertations. What will you do? You must learn how to read. Effective reading does not require that you read every book word-for-word, cover-to-cover. Indeed, sometimes very close reading of a given volume may actually impede your understanding of the author’s argument. In order to save time and cultivate a more effective approach to knowledge acquisition, you must learn how to use your resources. This means knowing when to read a book or article closely, and knowing when to skim. It means knowing how to read large books within a matter of an hour by carefully reviewing the table of contents, reading and rereading key chapters and paragraphs, and using the subject index. If you want to finish your dissertation, learn how to read.
Depending on your project, you may have built in deadlines that force you to produce material at a steady clip. If you do not have built in deadlines, you must impose them on yourself.  Deadlines produce results, and results lead to completed writing projects.  Set realistic deadlines and stick to them.  You will find that you are able to accomplish much more than you anticipated if you set and stick to deadlines.
 Instead of turning to aimless entertainment to fill your break times, try doing something that will indirectly serve your writing process. We need breaks: they refresh us and help us stay on task. In fact, studies have shown that overall productivity diminishes if employees are not allowed to take regular, brief pauses from their work during the day. What is not often mentioned, however, is that a break does not necessarily have to be unrelated to our work in order to be refreshing; it needs only to be different from what we were just doing. So, for example, if you have been writing for 90 minutes, instead of turning on YouTube to watch another mountain biking video, you could get up, stretch, and pull that book off the shelf you’ve been wanting to read, or that article that has been sitting in Pocket for the past six weeks. Maybe reorganizing your desk or taking a walk (see above) around the library with your capture journal would be helpful. Whatever you choose, try to make your breaks productive.

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Friday, 5 May 2017

HOW TO WRITE A THESIS?

HOW TO WRITE A THESIS?





STEPS:
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Methodology and analysis Design
4. Data Analysis
5. Results and Discussion


1. Introduction:
The primary chapter for the thesis is the introduction that tells concerning the aim of analysis and therefore the downside you would like to resolve through the analysis. Here you need to offer a plan concerning the methodology you followed and therefore the analytical tools used. The probable challenges should even be known at this stage
2. Literature Review:
Choice of literature that you simply can use for thesis writing are consequent step in Ph.D. thesis writing. The previous study within the field will either support your theory, or oppose it. You need to state within the literature review the relation of the references you decide on with the subject of your analysis. This chapter will have the analysis queries expressed thorough and therefore the technique by that you aim to resolve them.
3. Methodology and analysis Design:
The research methodology chapter can come back next, wherever you'll get to select the sample cluster and ways for information assortment, the tools for analysis and modules to be created. Getting ready a style that's robust nonetheless versatile ensures that your analysis work is in a position to skip hassles
4. Data Analysis:
The data analysis chapter is wherever most students stand still and raise us for facilitating, Even a minor mistake within the analysis will result in wrong results, therefore you've got to be extraordinarily cautious concerning the tests you apply and therefore the validity of knowledge you employ.
5. Results and Discussion:

Once the analysis is finished, you wish to formulate and interpret the results within the discussion chapter, you need to make a case for the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the research results, and discuss scope for additional analysis. As a part of thesis writing services, Thesis India is committed to making sure quality of work and satisfaction for its shoppers. We provide 100% a compensation guarantee for incompetent work, traced work or delay in finishing the work as per in agreement terms. We provide complete help for PhD. thesis writing services and even provide the flexibility to opt for chapter wise writing support. We are going to assign the foremost appropriate author and deliver your thesis on time.
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Thursday, 4 May 2017

HOW TO PUBLISH A RESEARCH PAPER?

HOW TO PUBLISH A RESEARCH PAPER?



STEPS:

  • Familiarize yourself with potential publications.
  • Choose the publication that best suits your research paper. 
  • Prepare your manuscript. 
  • Ask a colleague and/or professor to review your research paper. 
  • Revise your paper.
  • Submit your article.


Familiarize yourself with potential publications:
           It is important to be aware of the research already published and the current questions and studies in your field. Pay special attention to how other research papers are written: the format, the type of articles (quantitative studies versus qualitative ones, primary research, review of existing papers), the writing style, the subject matter, and the vocabulary.

Choose the publication that best suits your research paper:
       Each publication has its own audience and tone of writing. Decide if your research paper would fit better in a journal that is highly technical and meant only for other scholars or a journal that is more general in nature that would appeal to a broader audience. Know your audience and write accordingly.

Prepare your manuscript:
       Format your research paper so it fits the guidelines for that publication. Most journals provide a document called "Instruction to Authors" or "Author's Guide" that offers specific instructions about layout, type font, and length. This guide will also tell you how to submit your paper and will provide details of the review process.

Ask a colleague and/or professor to review your research paper:
             They should edit your paper for grammar, spelling errors, typos, clarity, and conciseness. At this time, they should also verify your content. Research papers need to present an issue that is significant and relevant. They should be clearly written, easy to follow, and appropriate for the intended audience. Have two or three people review your paper, more if possible.

Revise your paper:
             It is likely you will go through three or four drafts before final submission of your research paper. Make a special effort to make your paper clear, engaging, and easy to follow. This will greatly increase your chances of being published.

Submit your article:
           Go back to the Author's Guide to review submission requirements. Once you are satisfied that your paper meets all of the guidelines, submit the paper through the appropriate channels. Some journals allow online submission, while others prefer a hard copy.

Keep trying.:
          Sometimes journals will ask you to revise your paper and resubmit. Study their critiques carefully and make the necessary changes. Do not get over-attached to your original submission. Instead, remain flexible and rework the paper in light of the feedback you received. Use all of your skills as a researcher and a writer to create a superior paper. Even if you are ultimately rejected by your "target" publication, continue to re-write your research paper and submit it to other publications.


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